Not-for-profits that direct and benefit from the actions of their volunteers can be held accountable if those individuals are harmed or harm others on the job. Lawsuits involving volunteers often arise from allegations of negligence or intentional misconduct, even when volunteers act outside the scope of their prescribed duties. Your organization needs to take steps to limit risk associated with unpaid workers.

Volunteers as Employees
Your volunteer recruitment process should be almost as formal and structured as your paid employee hiring process. Develop job descriptions for open positions that outline the nature of the work, any required skills or experience and possible risks the job presents to the volunteer or your nonprofit.

Once you have volunteer candidates, screen them according to the risks that might be involved based on your nonprofit’s mission, programs and likely volunteer activities. Some positions will pose few risks. For those, ask candidates to fill out an application and submit to an interview, and then check their work and character references.

Positions that carry greater risks — such as work involving children, the elderly and other vulnerable populations, or direct access to cash donations — should involve more rigorous screening. This might include criminal history and credit report checks and verification of driver’s licenses, certifications or degrees.

Training and Performance Plans
Once volunteers are on board, provide training, supervision and, if necessary, discipline. Hold an orientation session to explain your nonprofit’s mission and policies. After volunteers have begun working for you, continue active supervision to verify that they understand expectations.

To encourage professionalism and responsibility in your volunteers, consider devising performance plans that include goals — and rewards for achieving them. Such plans can also provide you with a framework to evaluate and dismiss volunteers who may be putting your nonprofit at risk by, for example, failing to follow safety procedures.

Role of Insurance
No risk reduction plan is complete without insurance coverage. In addition to general liability, consider supplemental policies that address specific types of exposure such as medical malpractice or sexual misconduct.

It’s also a good idea to have legal advisors periodically review policies and procedures pertaining to volunteers. Attorneys and financial advisors can help you determine whether your organization is doing all it can to reduce risks.

Insurance is the cornerstone of any not-for-profit’s comprehensive risk management plan. It can’t protect your organization from every contingency, but it’s critical to protecting the people, property, funds and support you depend on.

Must-Have Policies
Many kinds of coverage are available, but it’s unlikely your organization needs all of them. One type you do need is a general liability policy for accidents and injuries suffered on your property by clients, volunteers, suppliers, visitors and anyone other than employees. Your state also likely mandates unemployment insurance as well as workers’ compensation coverage.

Property insurance that covers theft and damage to your buildings, furniture, fixtures, supplies and other physical assets is essential, too. When buying a property insurance policy, make sure it covers the replacement cost of assets, rather than their current market value (which is likely to be much lower).

Optional Coverage
Depending on your not-for-profit’s operations and assets, consider such optional policies as:

  • Automobile,
  • Product liability,
  • Fraud/employee dishonesty,
  • Business interruption,
  • Umbrella coverage, and
  • Directors and officers liability.

Insurance also is available to cover risks associated with special events. Before purchasing a separate policy, however, check whether your not-for-profit’s general liability insurance extends to special events.

Setting Priorities
Because you’re likely to be working with a limited budget, prioritize the risks that pose the greatest threats and discuss with your advisors the kinds — and amounts — of coverage that will mitigate them. But don’t assume this will address your not-for-profit’s exposure. Your objective should be to never actually need the benefits. To that end, put in place internal controls and other risk-avoidance policies.

Establish policies that stipulate proper oversight of accounting functions by executives and board members and provide for the security of physical assets and safety of employees and nonemployees. In addition, your insurance agent can help determine the amount of coverage that’s appropriate given the size and scope of your organization.

Russ: This is the PKF Texas Entrepreneur’s Playbook. I’m Russ Capper, this week’s guest host, and I’m here with Denise Patrick, managing director of Energy Markets Access and lead researcher of the Profit and Peril Report. Welcome to the Playbook, Denise. Continue Reading Denise Patrick of Energy Markets Access Discusses Approaching International Business